What are the four perspectives of a balanced scorecard?

A Balanced Scorecard is a tool for measuring strategic performance. It provides a holistic view of an organisation's activities, aligning them with its strategic goals and objectives. It has four perspectives, each offering a distinct lens to assess the organisation's performance. Here's a concise overview of the four perspectives:
Financial Perspective: The financial perspective focuses on traditional financial metrics that indicate an organisation's success and sustainability. This perspective includes revenue growth, profitability, Return on Investment (ROI), and cost efficiency. These metrics help stakeholders understand how well the organisation achieves its financial objectives and creates shareholder value.
Customer Perspective: The customer perspective emphasises customer satisfaction and loyalty. It involves understanding customer needs, preferences, and expectations. Metrics in this perspective include customer satisfaction scores, retention rates, market share, and lifetime value. By assessing customer-related metrics, organisations can ensure they deliver value that meets or exceeds customer expectations.
Internal Process Perspective: This perspective examines the efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation's internal processes and operations. It involves identifying essential functions critical to achieving strategic goals and optimising them. Metrics may encompass process cycle times, defect rates, productivity improvements, and innovation levels. Improving internal processes can lead to better overall performance and customer satisfaction.
Learning and Growth Perspective: The focus of the learning and growth perspective is the organisation's ability to adapt, innovate, and learn for future success. It encompasses employee development, organisational culture, and technological advancements. Metrics in this perspective include employee satisfaction, training investment, employee retention rates, and the speed of adopting new technologies.